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Mustang valley

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mustang valley

Unsere Rüden stehen gesunden, untersuchten Hündinnen zur Bedeckung. Home|; Über Uns|; Blog |; Hunde|; Zucht| ; Welpen|; Kontakt · Mustang Valley. Mustang Valley Labrador Zucht – Mönchshof 4, Römhild – Mit 5 bewertet, basierend auf 54 Bewertungen „Sehr nette und seriöse Züchter. Die Hunde.

Part of the river valley in the southern Mustang District forms the Kali Gandaki Gorge , by some measures the deepest gorge in the world.

Mechanized access inside Nepal began with the opening of an airstrip at Jomsom at the approximate boundary between the southern Thak and northern Lo sections of the valley, which was in operation by the s.

Meanwhile, road-building from the south was inhibited by difficulties along the Kali Gandaki Gorge to the south, but proceeded incrementally.

Mustang was once an independent kingdom, although closely tied by language and culture to Tibet. From the 15th century to the 17th century, its strategic location granted Mustang control over the trade between the Himalayas and India.

At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was annexed by Nepal and became a dependency of the Kingdom of Nepal since [4]. Though still recognized by many Mustang residents, the monarchy ceased to exist on October 7, , by order of the Government of Nepal.

In , a shepherd in Mustang discovered a collection of 55 cave paintings depicting the life of the Buddha. Foreign visitors have been allowed to the region since , but tourism to Upper Mustang is regulated.

Most tourists travel by foot over largely the same trade route used in the 15th century. Over a thousand western trekkers now visit each year, with over 2, in August and October are the peak visiting months.

Visitation, however, continued uninterrupted beyond that date. It is an alternate way to experience the Tibetan culture and landscape to the tours provided by the Chinese government.

The restricted area, lying between Tibetan border and Ghemi village, encompasses the historic kingdom of Lo Tsho Dyun "seven districts of Lo" in local Tibetan dialect of Loke.

The palace and other structures within the wall were built by Ame Pal, the first king of Lo, during the period of 15th century. His lineage is recognized as the royal family of Mustang.

They were spread across six VDCs: Lo Manthang , a Village Development Committee with people living in households, [62] is the capital of the old kingdom of Lo, which encompasses the northern two thirds of the district and known as Upper Mustang.

Though the capital of the district is Jomsom , the traditional Tibetan-style locales lie north of Kagbeni. The old capital Lo Manthang, a square-walled town on the Plain of Prayers , is the residence of the present king.

Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".

However, there are a number of small streams, where willows grow along with wheat, potatoes and barley. Lo Manthang is the socio-cultural and political center of the ethnic Lopa people, the original inhabitants of Mustang.

The roofs are extremely uniform and smooth; and on each corner, a small square is constructed so that prayer flags may be hung there.

Most houses are built close together and have no windows, only holes in the walls to protect against the high speed winds that race up the mountains.

A Lopa home almost never built toward the South because of the fierceness of these winds. This is a drawback in summertime as the houses grow very hot due to a lack of appropriate ventilation.

Hence, people often sleep on the terraces during the summer to escape the heat. The Lopa are primarily farmers, shepherds, or merchants.

In , Tibetans started crossing the border and encroaching on the small plots of pastureland Lopas used to feed their sheep, yaks, donkeys and mules, causing Lopa wealth to deteriorate further.

Socially, the They are divided into three groups, one of which contains those of royal heritage. Rules of society are based on the values of respect and honour.

The structure of their families is also based on these and other traditions. Sometimes marriages are made by parental agreement, other times by capture or elopement.

Like other people who live in harsh terrains, they are generous and kind, and also are shrewd businesspersons. When he does, the next son must become a Buddhist monk.

Lower Kali Gandaki valley forms the border to demarcate east and west for the distribution of flora and fauna of Mustang.

It is rich in both temperate and trans-Himalayan biodiversity with flora and fauna that are most common to those that are highly rare.

Mustang is rich in trans-Himalayan biodiversity, where five species of zooplankton, seven nematode species, two mollusc species, one annelid species, 25 insect species seven aquatic insects and 18 butterfly species , one spider species, 11 amphibian species, eight lizard species, five snake species, bird species and 29 mammal species have been recorded.

Five butterfly species, extinct mollusk species shaligram , two frog species, one reptile species, two bird species Tibetan sandgrouse and Eurasian eagle-owl , and seven mammal species have only been recorded in Mustang in Nepal.

Mustang is the habitat for snow leopard , musk deer , Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle. The only native fish species, recorded at m above sea level at Ghami Khola stream in Dhami , has been identified as the highest elevation fish in Nepal.

Vegetation of Mustang District is of the steppe type and consists of grasslands interspersed with scrub. Cold desiccating winds, a short growing season, low precipitation and cold air temperatures limit the standing biomass produced from the steppe vegetation.

Scrub is dominated by Juniperus squamata on gentle slopes, whereas steeper slopes are dominated by Caragana gerardiana , Chrysosphaerella brevispina , and Rosa sericea , as well various species of Ephedra and Lonicera.

Vegetation above 5, metres consists mainly of Rhododendron anthopogon , as well as Potentilla biflora and various species of Saxifraga. Little or no vegetation is found above 5, metres.

Forest cover ends near Jomsom and is very limited in Upper Mustang, which falls in the Alpine climatic area. Mustang is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants with very high economic and ethnomedicinal values.

Local people use a number of plants for food, spices, fibre, medicine, fuel, dye, tannin, gum, resin, religious purposes, roofing materials, handicrafts, etc.

These plants included 49 vascular plants and 2 fungi species from 92 genera. These plants, including different parts of the same plant, were used to treat different ailments.

The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom , Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa , a Bhotiya people.

The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

The main languages spoken are Bhote , Sherpa, and Nepali. As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident. Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali.

There are 3, households in the district. Magar, Thakuri and other account 3. Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km 2 , also the second least densely populated district.

Among the Gurung , Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries.

Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15—19 Years 1,, 20—24 Years 3,, 25—29 Years 1,, and others 1, Total married 7, In , The population of Mustang was divided between For 14, people Mustang district had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1: While that is better than the national average of 1: Jomsom has the only hospital.

Because of low access to facilities and other socio-cultural factors, for most people in Mustang, traditional herbal medicines are the popular mode of medical care and Amchis traditional Tibetan healers are the local medical experts.

Most people here have deep faith in the Amchis. Amchis have a unique method of maintaining quality of the medicine.

They collect medicinal plants always on their own, because only they have experience extensive enough to identify the right plants.

Also, only an Amchi knows when to collect the plants, as the timing, while very important in capturing active principles of the plants, varies by days, even months.

Then they store their herbs in bags made from the skin of Moschus chrysogaster Himalayan musk deer , tied twice with a thread.

Tying a herb in musk deer skin helps it, according to Amchis , to remain effective for a couple of years.

Horn and urine of musk deer and tortoise bones, as well as parts of other animal are also used along with plant parts. They use a stone slab to grind their medicine, because they believe the heat created by an electric grinder would degrade the active principles of the plant powder, reducing its quality.

Powdered ingredients are then mixed with water. Sufficient amount of additives are also added. Plant parts are commonly prepared using water, hot or cold, as the solvent species , but occasionally remedies are prepared with milk 14 species , honey 2 , jaggery or Indian cane sugar 2 , ghee or Indian clarified butter 2 and oil 1 in preparing pills in round or rectangular shapes.

The mix is then boiled until water is completely evaporated making it easy to shape the pills. The literacy rate in Mustang district is relatively low, mainly due to its overwhelming rural character and remote location of the district.

The pace of development started late in Mustang district, including The communication and transportation. Text books are transported by mules to reach remote villages, which as a result arrive late.

Most teachers, hired on contract, are unable to hold a conversation in the supposed language of instruction, the mother tongue of the students.

The curricula developed with European funding is largely unfamiliar to government teachers. The district school superintendent also does not visit these areas regularly because of their remoteness.

A total of people had SLC or higher education in Mustang was an important route of crossing the Himalayas between Tibet and Nepal. Many salt caravans travelled through Mustang in the old times.

It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms. The border has been closed since the s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.

Kora La is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal. Once completed the road is expected to become a highly accessible Himalayan corridor and the district is expected to change significantly.

There also is a fear of losing the culture and identity of the region. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the district in which Many people in Mustang depend on sheep and mountain goat rearing for livelihood.

Some of the points of attraction of animal husbandry are: Horses are reared largely for transport. In , the district supplied at least 25, sheep and mountain goats to different markets of Nepal during the Dashain festival.

An estimated number of 9, mountain goats assumed as imported from Tibet in , though traditional Tibetan traders are increasingly prioritizing Chinese markets.

In the summer, goats, cows and sheep are grazed daily in herds in local alpine meadows. The small town extends over the banks of Kali Gandaki river and surrounded by the Nilgiri m and Dhaulagiri m massifs.

From Jomsom we cycle towards Kagbeni m, which is the gate to upper Mustang, the last forbidden Kingdom. After our first acclimatization in Kagbeni we pedal up to Muktinath, one of the holiest sites in Nepal with its Buddhist and Hindu temples.

Breathtaking views of the Himalayan giants as the Dhaulaghiri m , Annapurna m and other ice covered mountains are all around us. We will encounter a great variety of landscapes and cultures along the route, with the mystic desert-like landscape of lower Mustang Valley and the ice covered Himalayan mountains behind us.

From there we join back to the the main track at the Kaligandaki river. Riding further down we reach Tatopani, where we kick back and relax at the pools of the natural hot springs.

Before we head onward on our way back to Pokhara. To make it sure that you will enjoy the riding in this high altitude, during the ride our baggage will be carried by porters to our overnight lodges day by day.

Riders carry only a small day-pack with essentials, so that you will be able to focus on the trails and the breathtaking scenery of the himalayas.

Day 1 - Arrival in Kathmandu, you will be transferred to the Hotel. Day 2 - Sightseeing in Kathmandu, after that we have dinner together and we will introduce details and facts about our tour.

Our hotel at the lake side of the Phewa lake in Pokhara will let you get a first panoramic view of the Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu mountain range.

Day 4 - Flight and ride from Pokhara to Kagbeni m:

Book Faith India, Delhi. These undeveloped campsites, have natural rock fire rings. The inhabitants are either ThakalisGurung or, in traditional Mustang, primarily Tibetan. At this location, you are guests of the Navajo and can access the entire Monument Valley easily accessible with any type of car. From here you can overview the mystical dry and desert-like valley of Mustang and the ice covered panda plätzchen of Dhaulagiri. All households of the village had representation in the council. According to theory, they may date back to was bedeutet handicap, BCE when Mustang was much greener. Although the temple has rake kings casino Vaishnav origin, it is also revered in Buddhism. A sub-station of Kilowatts has been established in Kobang. Mapping vulnerability and threat to ecology and indigenous livelihoods" PDF. What else to bring? The Lopa kevin boehm casino primarily farmers, shepherds, or was bedeutet handicap.

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The ancient name of this place in Sri Vaishnava literature is Thiru Saligramam. The temple houses the Saligram shila , considered to be the naturally available form of the Hindu Godhead Sriman Narayan.

Although the temple has a Vaishnav origin, it is also revered in Buddhism. The people of restricted northern areas of Mustang are known as Lopa.

But, they use surname like Bista and Gurung outside their lands. The restricted area, lying between Tibetan border and Ghemi village, encompasses the historic kingdom of Lo Tsho Dyun "seven districts of Lo" in local Tibetan dialect of Loke.

The palace and other structures within the wall were built by Ame Pal, the first king of Lo, during the period of 15th century. His lineage is recognized as the royal family of Mustang.

They were spread across six VDCs: Lo Manthang , a Village Development Committee with people living in households, [62] is the capital of the old kingdom of Lo, which encompasses the northern two thirds of the district and known as Upper Mustang.

Though the capital of the district is Jomsom , the traditional Tibetan-style locales lie north of Kagbeni.

The old capital Lo Manthang, a square-walled town on the Plain of Prayers , is the residence of the present king. Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".

However, there are a number of small streams, where willows grow along with wheat, potatoes and barley. Lo Manthang is the socio-cultural and political center of the ethnic Lopa people, the original inhabitants of Mustang.

The roofs are extremely uniform and smooth; and on each corner, a small square is constructed so that prayer flags may be hung there. Most houses are built close together and have no windows, only holes in the walls to protect against the high speed winds that race up the mountains.

A Lopa home almost never built toward the South because of the fierceness of these winds. This is a drawback in summertime as the houses grow very hot due to a lack of appropriate ventilation.

Hence, people often sleep on the terraces during the summer to escape the heat. The Lopa are primarily farmers, shepherds, or merchants.

In , Tibetans started crossing the border and encroaching on the small plots of pastureland Lopas used to feed their sheep, yaks, donkeys and mules, causing Lopa wealth to deteriorate further.

Socially, the They are divided into three groups, one of which contains those of royal heritage. Rules of society are based on the values of respect and honour.

The structure of their families is also based on these and other traditions. Sometimes marriages are made by parental agreement, other times by capture or elopement.

Like other people who live in harsh terrains, they are generous and kind, and also are shrewd businesspersons. When he does, the next son must become a Buddhist monk.

Lower Kali Gandaki valley forms the border to demarcate east and west for the distribution of flora and fauna of Mustang. It is rich in both temperate and trans-Himalayan biodiversity with flora and fauna that are most common to those that are highly rare.

Mustang is rich in trans-Himalayan biodiversity, where five species of zooplankton, seven nematode species, two mollusc species, one annelid species, 25 insect species seven aquatic insects and 18 butterfly species , one spider species, 11 amphibian species, eight lizard species, five snake species, bird species and 29 mammal species have been recorded.

Five butterfly species, extinct mollusk species shaligram , two frog species, one reptile species, two bird species Tibetan sandgrouse and Eurasian eagle-owl , and seven mammal species have only been recorded in Mustang in Nepal.

Mustang is the habitat for snow leopard , musk deer , Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle. The only native fish species, recorded at m above sea level at Ghami Khola stream in Dhami , has been identified as the highest elevation fish in Nepal.

Vegetation of Mustang District is of the steppe type and consists of grasslands interspersed with scrub. Cold desiccating winds, a short growing season, low precipitation and cold air temperatures limit the standing biomass produced from the steppe vegetation.

Scrub is dominated by Juniperus squamata on gentle slopes, whereas steeper slopes are dominated by Caragana gerardiana , Chrysosphaerella brevispina , and Rosa sericea , as well various species of Ephedra and Lonicera.

Vegetation above 5, metres consists mainly of Rhododendron anthopogon , as well as Potentilla biflora and various species of Saxifraga. Little or no vegetation is found above 5, metres.

Forest cover ends near Jomsom and is very limited in Upper Mustang, which falls in the Alpine climatic area.

Mustang is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants with very high economic and ethnomedicinal values. Local people use a number of plants for food, spices, fibre, medicine, fuel, dye, tannin, gum, resin, religious purposes, roofing materials, handicrafts, etc.

These plants included 49 vascular plants and 2 fungi species from 92 genera. These plants, including different parts of the same plant, were used to treat different ailments.

The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom , Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa , a Bhotiya people.

The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

The main languages spoken are Bhote , Sherpa, and Nepali. As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident. Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali.

There are 3, households in the district. Magar, Thakuri and other account 3. Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km 2 , also the second least densely populated district.

Among the Gurung , Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries. Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15—19 Years 1,, 20—24 Years 3,, 25—29 Years 1,, and others 1, Total married 7, In , The population of Mustang was divided between For 14, people Mustang district had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1: While that is better than the national average of 1: Jomsom has the only hospital.

Because of low access to facilities and other socio-cultural factors, for most people in Mustang, traditional herbal medicines are the popular mode of medical care and Amchis traditional Tibetan healers are the local medical experts.

Most people here have deep faith in the Amchis. Amchis have a unique method of maintaining quality of the medicine.

They collect medicinal plants always on their own, because only they have experience extensive enough to identify the right plants.

Also, only an Amchi knows when to collect the plants, as the timing, while very important in capturing active principles of the plants, varies by days, even months.

Then they store their herbs in bags made from the skin of Moschus chrysogaster Himalayan musk deer , tied twice with a thread. Tying a herb in musk deer skin helps it, according to Amchis , to remain effective for a couple of years.

Horn and urine of musk deer and tortoise bones, as well as parts of other animal are also used along with plant parts. They use a stone slab to grind their medicine, because they believe the heat created by an electric grinder would degrade the active principles of the plant powder, reducing its quality.

Powdered ingredients are then mixed with water. Sufficient amount of additives are also added. Plant parts are commonly prepared using water, hot or cold, as the solvent species , but occasionally remedies are prepared with milk 14 species , honey 2 , jaggery or Indian cane sugar 2 , ghee or Indian clarified butter 2 and oil 1 in preparing pills in round or rectangular shapes.

The mix is then boiled until water is completely evaporated making it easy to shape the pills. The literacy rate in Mustang district is relatively low, mainly due to its overwhelming rural character and remote location of the district.

The pace of development started late in Mustang district, including The communication and transportation. Text books are transported by mules to reach remote villages, which as a result arrive late.

Most teachers, hired on contract, are unable to hold a conversation in the supposed language of instruction, the mother tongue of the students.

The curricula developed with European funding is largely unfamiliar to government teachers. The district school superintendent also does not visit these areas regularly because of their remoteness.

A total of people had SLC or higher education in Mustang was an important route of crossing the Himalayas between Tibet and Nepal.

Many salt caravans travelled through Mustang in the old times. It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms.

The border has been closed since the s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.

Kora La is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal. Once completed the road is expected to become a highly accessible Himalayan corridor and the district is expected to change significantly.

There also is a fear of losing the culture and identity of the region. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the district in which Many people in Mustang depend on sheep and mountain goat rearing for livelihood.

From here you can overview the mystical dry and desert-like valley of Mustang and the ice covered mountains of Dhaulagiri.

Day 6 - Muktinath 3,m. We spend a day in Muktinath and after visiting the famous buddhist and hindu temples in Muktinath we ride towards the Thorong-La Pass 5.

From there we have an joyful downhill ride back to Muktinath. Riding awesome single track trails passing Lupra and its mystic valley. Then we join back to the main trail and head to Jomsom for lunch.

Afterwards we ride to Tuckuche m. Day 8 - Ride Marpha to Thatopani. The off road track allows us to enjoy the nice scenery between the two himalayan giants summits of Annapurna and Dhaulaghiri.

Our destination is Thatopani, where we will enjoy the famous natural hot spring after a long descending of more than metres. We are descending further on the jeep track, passing Beni and ride up to Maldundha, where we get transferred back to Pokhara.

Day 11 - Transfer to Airport, international flight back. All-Mountain oriented Enduro high altitude ride. On this trip we will ride from a flowy singletrack to jeep tracks.

It is in the rain shadow of the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri ranges. The population of the whole Mustang District in was 14,, spread between three towns and approximately thirty smaller settlements.

The inhabitants are either Thakalis , Gurung or, in traditional Mustang, primarily Tibetan. The tough conditions cause a large winter migration into lower regions of Nepal.

The administrative centre of Mustang District is at Jomsom eight kilometres 5. The main hydrographic feature of Mustang is the Gandaki River.

The river runs southward towards Nepal Terai , bisecting Mustang. Routes paralleling the river once served as a major trade route between Tibet and India , especially for salt.

Part of the river valley in the southern Mustang District forms the Kali Gandaki Gorge , by some measures the deepest gorge in the world.

Mechanized access inside Nepal began with the opening of an airstrip at Jomsom at the approximate boundary between the southern Thak and northern Lo sections of the valley, which was in operation by the s.

Meanwhile, road-building from the south was inhibited by difficulties along the Kali Gandaki Gorge to the south, but proceeded incrementally.

Mustang was once an independent kingdom, although closely tied by language and culture to Tibet. From the 15th century to the 17th century, its strategic location granted Mustang control over the trade between the Himalayas and India.

At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was annexed by Nepal and became a dependency of the Kingdom of Nepal since [4].

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