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Ungarn em 2019

29.11.2018 5 Comments

ungarn em 2019

EM-Qualifikation /» Gruppe E (Tabelle und Ergebnisse) Ungarn, Ungarn, Ungarn, 0, 0, 0, 0, , 0, 0. Wales, Wales, Wales, 0, 0, 0, 0, , 0, 0. März Das Spiel beginnt am 21 März um Uhr. Mit unserer Umfrage: Wer gewinnt das Duell zwischen Slowakei und Ungarn?. Deutschland und Dänemark richten gemeinsam die Handball WM vom bis Ungarn (). Gruppe I Brasilien - Kroatien ( 13) Der EM-Fünfte um den Kieler Starspieler Domagoj Duvnjak bezwang den. Der Topf 2 beinhaltete Spanien, Dänemark und Frankreich. September bis zum Die Ziehung wird am Die Ergebnisse aus der Spiel 77 prüfen An der Qualifikationsrunde, die am Bewerbungen für die Ausrichtung der Heimspiele können über oberliga hamburg Landes-Tischtennisverbände abgegeben werden. Wir haben in Budapest frühzeitig schöne Hotels in unterschiedlichen Preislagen für Sie reserviert!

Hentet fra " https: EM i curling Curling i Se brugsbetingelserne for flere oplysninger. Semifinale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Tyskland 4.

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Kvalificeret til VM Nedrykning til B-EM Bronzekamp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Tjekkiet. Finale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Danmark.

Nedrykning til C-EM Semifinale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Sverige 2. Bronzekamp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Rusland 3. Semifinale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Litauen 4.

Semifinale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EE Total Estland 3. In , Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force.

Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November , and in , participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia , gaining some of its former territories in the south.

Hungarian troops fought on the Eastern Front for two years. Despite some early successes , [94] the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January By October , the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses , succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December.

After German occupation, Hungary participated in the Holocaust. Nearly all of them were murdered. In addition to the over , Hungarian Jews killed, [] as many as , [] [] other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks, [] [] [] [] [] [] Soviet Red Army troops, [] [] [] and Yugoslavs.

On 13 February , Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. In the ensuing purges approximately , officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from to Some , Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least , died.

The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life.

Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May , as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October , protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the Revolution.

In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact.

Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside.

For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary, but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc.

On 4 November reinforcements of more than , troops and 2, tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union. Some 13, were interned and brought to trial and executed.

Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.

In , the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising.

In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us. The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one tenth of pre-revolutionary levels.

From the s through the late s, Hungary was often referred to as " the happiest barrack " within the Eastern bloc.

In the s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond. Over , people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country.

Free elections were held in May , which saw the Hungarian Democratic Forum , a major conservative opposition group, elected to the head of a coalition government.

With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.

Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.

Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law.

The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state.

The Danube flows north-south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin. Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.

To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton , the largest lake in Central Europe.

The Tisza is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. Balaton Uplands National Park. Hungary has a temperate seasonal climate , [] [] with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters.

Average annual temperature is 9. Temperature extremes are Hungary is a unitary , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in ; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power , and may send legislation to the member Constitutional Court for review.

The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly , who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.

Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees , survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president.

The cabinet reports to parliament. According to Eurostat , the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system.

The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April The new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected MPs instead of previous lawmakers.

The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the s, [] [] and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.

The articles of the diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy , this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.

As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise , it was reconstituted in The Latin term Natio Hungarica "Hungarian nation" was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility , the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers, [] [] regardless of language or ethnicity.

The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary.

It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control.

The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments. This merger took place in January Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties megye.

The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.

County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.

The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.

Since , the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.

The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in and the next will be in Hungary since has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania , Slovakia , and Ukraine.

These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up.

Since , the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Hungary is since late November full member of the Turkic Council.

The Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of countries. Since , the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army.

In , the armed forces had 31, personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand.

In , the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.

Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in in order to become more efficient through cyber security.

One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries.

In , the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. By HDF already had over 2, officers and , men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons.

During the s and early s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in Conscription was introduced on a national basis in The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80, men organized into seven corps commands.

During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era — , the entire , strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons.

Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world, furthermore it is the 15th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.

Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade , thus the country is the 36th largest export economy in the world.

On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent.

Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology , information security , and related hardware research.

Unemployment rate was 4. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation.

Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint HUF , although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed patents , the 6th highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrual output, the 12th highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world.

The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NRDI Office , which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation , the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government , and the primary RDI funding agency.

Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Tabula Hungariae and Bibliotheca Corviniana. Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists.

Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, Debrecen , Miskolc , and Szeged have tram networks.

The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from The system consists of four lines. Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.

The most important port is Budapest. There are five international airports in Hungary: Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy.

Population density stands at inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average. More than one quarter of the population lived in the Budapest metropolitan area , 6,, people Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility ; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.

In , the conservative government began a program to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs.

The birth rate has gradually increased from 1. Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: German community of about , that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around , that mainly resides in the northern part of the country.

Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary , people - ca. Today approximately 5 million Hungarians live outside Hungary.

Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary. Hungarian is the 13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union.

According to the census, 9,, people Hungarian Magyar is a member of the Uralic language family , unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian.

It is the largest of the Uralic languages in terms of the number of speakers and the only one spoken in Central Europe. Standard Hungarian is based on the variety spoken in the capital of Budapest , although use of the standard dialect is enforced, Hungarian has a number of urban and rural dialects.

Hungary is a historically Christian country. Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings.

Contemporary Hungary, however, has no official religion. With the onset of the Protestant Reformation , most Hungarians took up first Lutheranism , then soon afterwards Calvinism.

In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic.

However, in comparison to other European regions where such efforts were undertaken, it was not at all successful largely because of religious freedom secured by Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves.

Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community. Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, but most perhaps , [] were either deported to concentration camps, whence most did not return, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members.

The census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education.

Preschool - kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen.

Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance.

Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions , and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the Matura.

The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.

Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programs that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of exchange students every year.

Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy.

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in by Emperor Joseph II.

Hungary ranks 4th above neighbour Romania, and after China, the United States and Russia in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with total medals, dating back to The Hungarian health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.

Total health expenditure was 1, Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe. Hungary is home to numerous medicinal spas , [] spa tourism sometimes combined with other treatments.

Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau , or rather several variants of Art Nouveau.

In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles.

By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries.

The Sezession from Vienna , the German Jugendstil , Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century.

In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings.

In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.

Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word.

His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.

Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk , popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music.

After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians:.

Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antecedents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song".

During the era of Communist rule in Hungary — , a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity.

Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice , from the s, also remain popular. In the earliest times, Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation.

The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary — It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem.

Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic.

Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias — Janus Pannonius , although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period.

The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly , after the town where it was first published.

See Bible translations into Hungarian for more details. The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French enlightenment.

The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.

Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary mostly through translations into German, French and English.

The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary.

Dishes are often flavoured with paprika ground red peppers , a Hungarian innovation. Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot barack and cherry cseresznye.

However, plum szilva is the most popular flavour. Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance in Hungarian wine-making.

The choice of quality wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: The main varieties are: For over years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum.

Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature Roman , Greek , Turkish , and northern country architectural elements.

Approximately 1, thermal springs can be found in Hungary more than just in the Capital area. There are approximately public baths in Hungary. The Romans heralded the first age of spas in Hungary.

In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages.

New style dances developed in the 18—19th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music.

Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band.

Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance.

Each man performs a number of points dance phrases , typically four to eight without repetition. Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts.

The first part is usually the same for everyone there are only a few variations. It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences.

Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.

The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow-cases and sheets.

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating.

The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece. In the midth century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe.

Many of its classic patterns are still in production. Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware.

The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. In , his son, Vilmos Zsolnay — joined the company and became its manager and director after several years.

He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the World Fair in Vienna, then at the World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.

Hungarian athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , only ten countries have won more Olympic medals than Hungary, with a total of medals ranking eighth in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.

Hungary has the third-highest number of Olympic medals per capita and second-highest number of gold medals per capita in the world.

In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall.

They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in in mens short track speed skating with a team of four: Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in , , , , and to Berlin , Antwerp , London , and Rome , respectively.

At the Hungarian Grand Prix , it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation.

The side of that era has the second all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world , with , and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years.

The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Hungary disambiguation.

Hungarian prehistory and Hungarian mythology. Hungary between the World Wars and Hungarian interwar economy. This section does not cite any sources.

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Turneringen blev afholdt i perioden Holdene spillede endvidere om fire pladser i VM-kvalifikationen i januar i Naseby , New Zealand , hvor otte hold fra hele verden spillede om de sidste to pladser ved VM.

Tjekkiet og Finland , mens de sidste to pladser gik til vinderen og nr. De 10 hold i B-EM spillede en enkeltturnering alle-mod-alle, og de fire bedste hold gik videre til slutspillet.

EM i curling Tondiraba Ishal. C-EM i curling Hentet fra " https: Hungary joined the European Union in and has been part of the Schengen Area since The "H" in the name of Hungary and Latin Hungaria is most likely due to early founded historical associations with the Huns , who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars.

Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars.

The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri. Around AD 41—54, a strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6, men was stationed here by AD A civil city grew gradually in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior.

As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in , some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in , before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary "Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources [59] was a state consisting of a semi-nomadic people.

It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century. The year marked the date when the ruling prince Hungarian: By , Stephen consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state.

The country switched to using the Latin language , and until as late as , Latin remained the official language of Hungary.

Around this time, Hungary began to become a powerful kingdom. This exceeded the income of the French king estimated at 17 tonnes and was double the receipts of the English Crown.

Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world.

His Golden Bull of was the first constitution in Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament parlamentum publicum.

In —, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol Tatar invasion. The Mongols returned to Hungary in , but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights stopped them.

As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg — succeeded to the throne, who in also became Holy Roman Emperor.

The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in For half a year in , there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania , the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt , which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.

He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background.

He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates.

King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II — , supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy.

The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.

With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in , Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century.

The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungary , was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania , under Ottoman and later Habsburg suzerainty.

The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda. The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousand Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs rather than ethnic Turkish people.

After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks.

A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. The uprisings lasted for years.

During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in to handle financial needs.

A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth — a famous journalist at that time — emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament.

A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms.

On 15 March , mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.

Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , by which the dual Monarchy of Austria—Hungary was formed.

This Empire had the second largest area in Europe after the Russian Empire , and it was the third most populous after Russia and the German Empire.

The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies.

Economically, the empire was a customs union. The era witnessed impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.

The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June , and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, [90] both of which were repelled.

The Central Powers conquered Serbia. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire.

The Eastern front of the Allied Entente Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front.

By , the economic situation had deteriorated strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements and uprisings in the army had become commonplace.

In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements the maverick parties and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities.

Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in Padua on 3 November In January , parliamentary elections were held and Horthy was proclaimed Regent of the reestablished Kingdom of Hungary , inaugurating the so-called "Horthy era" Horthy-kor.

The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into On June 4 of that year, the Treaty of Trianon established new borders for Hungary.

Though the revision of the Treaty quickly rose to the top of the national political agenda, the Horthy government was not willing to resort to military intervention to do so.

The initial years of the Horthy regime were occupied by putsch attempts by Charles IV , the Austro-Hungarian pretender ; continued suppression of communists; and a migration crisis triggered by the Trianon territorial changes.

In , Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force. Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November , and in , participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia , gaining some of its former territories in the south.

Hungarian troops fought on the Eastern Front for two years. Despite some early successes , [94] the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January By October , the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses , succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December.

After German occupation, Hungary participated in the Holocaust. Nearly all of them were murdered. In addition to the over , Hungarian Jews killed, [] as many as , [] [] other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks, [] [] [] [] [] [] Soviet Red Army troops, [] [] [] and Yugoslavs.

On 13 February , Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. In the ensuing purges approximately , officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from to Some , Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least , died.

The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life.

Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May , as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October , protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the Revolution.

In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact.

Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside.

For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary, but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc.

On 4 November reinforcements of more than , troops and 2, tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union.

Some 13, were interned and brought to trial and executed. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.

In , the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising.

In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us. The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one tenth of pre-revolutionary levels.

From the s through the late s, Hungary was often referred to as " the happiest barrack " within the Eastern bloc. In the s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond.

Over , people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country.

Free elections were held in May , which saw the Hungarian Democratic Forum , a major conservative opposition group, elected to the head of a coalition government.

With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession.

This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.

Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.

Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law.

The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state.

The Danube flows north-south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin.

Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.

To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton , the largest lake in Central Europe.

The Tisza is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. Balaton Uplands National Park. Hungary has a temperate seasonal climate , [] [] with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters.

Average annual temperature is 9. Temperature extremes are Hungary is a unitary , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in ; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power , and may send legislation to the member Constitutional Court for review.

The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly , who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.

Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees , survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president.

The cabinet reports to parliament. According to Eurostat , the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system.

The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April The new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected MPs instead of previous lawmakers.

The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the s, [] [] and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.

The articles of the diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy , this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.

As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise , it was reconstituted in The Latin term Natio Hungarica "Hungarian nation" was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility , the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers, [] [] regardless of language or ethnicity.

The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary.

It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control. The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments.

This merger took place in January Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties megye. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.

County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.

The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.

Since , the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.

The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in and the next will be in Hungary since has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania , Slovakia , and Ukraine.

These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up.

Since , the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.

Hungary is since late November full member of the Turkic Council. The Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of countries. Since , the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure.

The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. In , the armed forces had 31, personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand.

In , the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.

Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in in order to become more efficient through cyber security.

One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries.

In , the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. By HDF already had over 2, officers and , men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons.

During the s and early s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in Conscription was introduced on a national basis in The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80, men organized into seven corps commands.

During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era — , the entire , strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons.

Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world, furthermore it is the 15th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.

Saint Petersburg, Russia, January 29, The edition of the Russian Snow Volleyball championship took place in Zelenogorsk, in the outskirts of Saint Petersburg.

It was the third edition of. Yerevan, Armenia, January 21, Despite the freezing temperatures the event took place at Tsaghkadzor. Erciyes, Turkey, January 13, Russia cemented their status as real Snow Volleyball powerhouse as they claimed five of the six medals at stake on Sunday when the second stop of the CEV Snow.

Not to be missed. Next to this, he had a. Continental Cup Senior Youth. Chantal Laboureur picks Sandra Ittlinger.

Volleyball legend Khamuttskikh helps grow the game among youngsters in Chelyabinsk.

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